A set of materials specification issued by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
A heating device, usually of drum shape, in which fuel is burned in the open air by natural draft. Iron material which has collected in the bottom of a blast furnace during a blow. See Blast Furnace, Blow.
A bath of molten salts used for heating steels, for hardening or tempering.
In metalcasting, a loose, granular material high in SiO2, resulting from the disintegration of rock. The name sand refers to the size of grain and not to mineral composition. Diameter of the individual grains can vary from approximately 6 to 270 mesh. Most foundry sands are made up principally of the mineral quartz (silica). Reason for this is that sand is plentiful, refractory, and cheap; miscellaneous sands include zircon, olivine, chromite, CaCO3, black sand (lava grains), titanium minerals and others.
Sand driven by a blast of compressed air (or steam). It is used to clean castings, to cut, polish, or decorate glass or other hard substances, and also to clean building fronts, etc.
Metal castings produced in sand molds. See Casting.
Preparation of used molding sand for reuse, which includes additions of bond, additives, moisture, etc.
Procedure whereby various properties of foundry sand, such as fineness, permeability, green strength, moisture content, etc., are adjusted to obtain castings free from blows, scabs, veins, and similar defects. See Foundry Sand.
Sand Control Equipment
Testing instruments such as moisture determinators, permeability air-flow apparatus, etc., for determining the various physical properties of sands.
Apparatus for removing moisture from sand.
Cavities of irregular shape and size whose inner surfaces plainly show the imprint of granular material.
Cavities or surface imperfections on a casting caused by sand washing into the mold cavity. See Mold Cavity.
Process in which moist sand is compressed into a hollow form. Molten metal is then poured into the form to fill the cavity. When the metal has solidified, the sand is broken away by vibration leaving the metal casting.
A machine for mixing sand by kneading and squeezing. See Muller.
A method of evenly distributing the bond around the sand grain by a rubbing action.
A bladed device used to divert sand from a belt conveyor into a sand hopper.
Volume of the pore spaces or folds in a sand. (Not synonymous with permeability).
Equipment for removing extraneous material from used sand and reconditioning it for further use.
Processing of used foundry sand grains by thermal, attraction or hydraulic methods so that it may be used in place of new sand without substantially changing current foundry sand practice. See Foundry Sand.
Dampening and cutting over or otherwise mixing sand to produce uniform distribution of moisture, and allowing time for migration of water molecules.
Indication of molding sand workability, particularly with reference to ramability, because the tougher the sand, the harder it is to ram tightly against the pattern. It is usually given as a number obtained by multiplying deformation by green compressive strength times 1000. See Molding Sand.
Temporary independent wall separated from a slag pocket wall; facilitates slag removal and protects permanent wall.
Sand in a mold back of the facing.
Sand from a bank or pit.
Sand used in an abrasive blasting machine for cleaning castings.
Sand used in making cores.
Prepared sand used next to the pattern.
Sand used in floor molding.
Sand prepared on foundry floor.
Sharp sand from vicinity of lakes.
Sand used to make molds.
Naturally bonded sand as distinguished from that which is formed synthetically. See Naturally Bonded.
Sand through which gases can pass freely.
Sand composed of almost pure silica.
Molding sand prepared by adding clay or other bond to the sand which is practically free of those materials. See Natural Sand.
A blemish on a casting caused by eruption of gas from the mold face.
Surface oxidation, partially adherent layers of corrosion products, left on metals by heating or casting in air or in other oxidizing atmospheres.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
An instrument used for obtaining microstructure images using an electron beam. The micrographs obtained give depth perception of the metal being observed.
Cutting off surface projections such as gates and risers from casting by means of gas torch.
Any scrap metal melted, usually with suitable additions, to produce castings.
Metal to be remelted; includes scrapped machinery fabricated items such as rail or structural steel and rejected castings (metal to be re-melted, castings that have to be re-melted).
A sieve or riddle with openings of definite size used to separate one gain size from another or to remove lumps from sand.
Distribution of particle size sand expressed in terms of the percentage of weight retained on each of a series of standard screens decreasing in mesh size and the percentage passed by the screen of finest mesh.
See Wet Scrubbers.
Term applied to finely ground bituminous coal which is mixed with sands for foundry uses.
Any radioactive material that is encased in and is to be used in a container in a manner intended to prevent leakage of the radioactive material.
A surface defect on a casting related to but of lesser degree than a Cold Shut; a ridge on the surface of a casting caused by a crack in the mold face. See Cold Shut.
A concentration of alloying elements at specific regions, usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid.
A metalloid melting 220°C (428°F) added to stainless steel to improve machinability.
A mechanical unit which separates or grades ground materials into constituent parts, used in the foundry to remove fines from the system sand and dust from the air.
Term used in Britain and continental Europe for ductile or nodular iron. SG means spherulitic or spheroidal graphite.
The process of separating the solidified casting from the mold material. The stage in the casting process where the sand from the mold is cleaned off of the newly formed castings through vigorous vibration. See Casting, Molds, Vibrator.
Equipment for mechanical removal of castings from molds.
The handle attached to a small ladle. See Ladle.
Sand free from binders, i.e., new, clean sand of angular shape. The term does not refer to grain shape. See Binder.
Shaw (Osborn-Shaw) Process
A type of deformation in which parallel planes in the metal crystals slide so as to retain their parallel relation.
In a torsion test, the ratio of the unit shear stress to the displacement caused by it per unit length in the elastic range. Units are Pa or psi.
Elastic displacement produced by pure shear loading.
Maximum shear stress a material is capable of withstanding without failure.
Load per unit area parallel to the plane of contact.
A process for forming a mold from resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with pre-heated (300°F – 500°F) metal patterns, resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern. See Cavity, Pattern.
Process in which clay-free silica sand coated with a thermosetting resin or mixed with resin is placed on a heated metal pattern for a short period of time to form a partially hardened shell. The bulk of the sand mixture inside the resulting shell is removed for further use. The pattern and shell are then heated further to harden or polymerize the resin-sand mix, and the shell is removed from the pattern. Frequently, shell cores are made using the Hot Box process. See Hot Box Process.
Tolerances which are non-symmetrically distributed about the design parameter.
A casting defect resulting form a mismatch of cope and drag. Sometimes there is a Core Shift, which also produces defective casting. See Core Shift.
Brittleness in a metal at an elevated temperature.
Metallic abrasive commonly used for cleaning casting surfaces. In die-casting, it is the phase of the die-casting cycle when molten metal is forced into the die.
Shotblasting (Shot peening)
Casting cleaning process employing a metal abrasive (grit or shot) propelled by centrifugal or air force.
The difference in volume between liquid metal and solid metal or the void (shrink hole) left in a casting because of it.
A cavity in a casting due to insufficient feed metal. See Cavity.
Patternmaker’s rule graded to allow for metal contraction.
Difference in volume between liquid metal and solid metal in a given cavity. Contraction of metal in the mould during solidification. The term is also used to describe the casting defect, i.e. shrinkage cavity. This results from poor design, insufficient metal feed, or inadequate feeding.
Cracks that form in metal as result of the pulling apart of grains by contraction before complete solidification. See Solidification.
Shrinkage occurring in the center of casting sections, particularly with platelike or barlike contours, which solidify simultaneously from two faces and cut off feeding in the central portion.
A linear scale or ruler, typically in inches or millimeters which has been lengthened by the percentage of linear shrinkage by which liquid metal contracts during solidification and cooling. See Solidification.
A device with meshes of wire or other material for separating fine material from coarse material.
See Screen Analysis.
Silicon dioxide, SiO2, occurring in nature as quartz, opal, etc. Molding and core sands are impure silica. The prime ingredient of sand and acid refractories.
Refractory material of ganister, bonded with hydrated lime, and fired at high temperature.
Silica in finely divided form.
A colloidal form of silica used as a drying agent.
Sand with a minimum silica content of 95% used for forming casting molds.
Silica flour mixed with water and other materials to form a brushable or sprayable facing material.
An abundant element, chemically classed as a nonmetal, metallurgically a metal, used extensively in ferrous and nonferrous alloys; melting point 1423ƒC (2593.4ƒF).
A series of alloys containing 0.5-6% silicon, 1-19% zinc and a substantial amount of copper. See Alloy.
A series of alloys containing 1-5% silicon, 0.5-3% iron, under 5% zinc, under 1.5% manganese, and the remainder being substantially copper.
Silicon Carbide Briquets
Silicon carbide in briquet form used as an inoculant and deoxidizer in cupola-melted gray iron.
An alloy of 50% silicon and 50% aluminum used for making silicon additions to aluminum alloys; also called an intermediate or hardener alloy. Melting point is 1070ƒF. See Alloy.
An alloy of silicon and copper, used as a deoxidizer and hardener in copper-base alloys, which is available in tow types containing 10 and 20% silicon.
A type of pig iron containing 8-14% silicon, 1.50% carbon max., 0.06% sulfur max., and 0.15% phosphorus max. See Pig Iron.
Refers to the process where user/designer and producer interact to reduce lead time and improve the efficiency of a part. This process is faster and more efficient than the traditional sequential process of design and manufacture.
The bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles of a mass of powder or a compact by heating to a suitable temperature and cooling.
That temperature at which the molding material begins to adhere to the casting, or in a test when the sand coheres to a platinum ribbon under controlled conditions. Also, the temperature at which sand grains begin to adhere to one another.
A primary coating of glue applied to the end grain of wood to seal the pores.
A framework representing both the exterior and interior of the shape of the casting.
Small upward bulge in the grating system, near the casting cavity, which functions as a dirt trap.
Skim Core (Skimmer)
A flat core or tile placed in a mold to skim a flowing stream of metal. Commonly used in pouring basins, it hold back slag and dirt while clean metal passes underneath to the downsprue.
Removing or hold back dirt or slag from the surface of the molten metal before or during pouring.
Drying the surface of the mold by direct application of heat.
A plain flat core.
A fused nonmetallic material used to protect molten metal from the air and to extract certain impurities. The nonmetallic covering on molten metal resulting from the combination of impurities in the initial charge like ash from fuel, and any silica and clay eroded from the refactory lining. It is skimmed off prior to pouring the metal.
Casting surface imperfections similar to sand inclusions, but containing impurities from the charge materials, silica and clay eroded from the refractory lining, ash from the fuel during the melting process. May also originate from metal-refractory reactions occurring in the ladle during pouring of the casting. See Inclusions.
An enlargement, dam or protrusion in the gating or runner system in a mold for the purpose of preventing molten slag particles from entering the mold cavity. See Dirt Trap.
Smoothing the surface of molds.
In ceramics, a pouring slip, a water suspension of finely ground clay, into a plaster of Paris mold. After it hardens it is dried and fired.
A flow able mixture of refractory particles suspended in a liquid. Thin watery mixture such as the gypsum mixture for plaster molding, the molding medium used for investment casting, core dips, and mold washes. See Dip Coat.
An individual or firm which wins metals from cores, or which melts, treats or refines scrap metals and alloys for further use.
A metallurgical thermal process in which a metal is separated in fused form from nonmetallic materials or other undesired metals with which it is associated.
A type of emission resulting from incomplete combustion and consisting predominantly of small gas borne particles of combustible material present in sufficient quantity to be observable independently of the presence of other solids in the gas stream.
A flask that has hinges and latches so that it may be removed from the mold prior to the pouring.
Prolonged heating of a metal, furnace or ladle at a selected temperature.
Sodium Silicate (CO2 Process)
Molding sand is mixed with sodium silicate and the mould is gassed with carbon dioxide gas to produce a hard mold or core. See Water Glass.
A process used to soften metals through annealing or tempering. See Annealing.
That material which has a tendency to resist any attempt to change its size or shape.
Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points- most commonly, lead-based or tin-based alloys, which are the soft solders. Hard solders are alloys that have sliver, copper, or nickel bases, and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800°F (426.7°C) is generally termed brazing. The sticking or adhering of molten metal to portions of a die.
Wooden pegs used to reinforce a body of sand or hold it in place.
Shrinkage or contraction as a metal cools from the solidifying temperature to room temperature.
A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species.
Process of metal (or alloy) changing from the liquid to the solid state.
Only pure metals solidify or freeze at one definite temperature. Alloys contain different constituents which solidify at different temperatures, and the various temperatures from that of the first constituent to solidify to that of the last to constituent to freeze is called the solidification range. See Solidification.
The decrease in size accompanying the freezing of a molten metal.
Shrinkage or contraction as metal solidifies. See Shrinkage.
Temperature at which freezing is completed. Below that temperature all metals are completely solid.
Using sound waves above audible frequency via a supersonic reflectoscope to measure time sound waves take returning from opposite sides of casting. Defects return the waves in more or less time. See Defects.
Tempered martensite that has a micro-structure of distinctly granular appearance. Further tempering causes the appearance of clearly resolvable carbide particles (spheroidite).
Buckling or flaking off of the surface material.
After solution heat treating, a mode of quenching in which a spray of water is directed upon material just removed from the furnace.
A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water at 39°F (3.9°C), for which the specific gravity is taken as 1,000 kg/m3. See Density.
Equivalent to thermal capacity, or the quantity of heat required to produce a unit change in the temperature of a unit mass.
Volume of one gram of a substance at a specific temperature, usually 68°F (20°C).
Optical instrument for determining the concentration of metallic constituents in a metal (or alloy) by the intensity of specific wavelengths generated when the metal or alloy is thermally or electrically excited.
Process for determining the concentration of metallic constituents in a metal or alloy by the intensity of specific wavelengths generated when the metal or alloy is thermally or electrically excited.
A cementite aggregate of globular carbide and ferrite.
Spheroidized Vementite (Divorced Pearlite)
The globular condition of iron carbide after a spheroidizing treatment.
Alloy of iron and manganese used in basic and acid open hearth steelmaking practice A high manganese pig iron containing 15-30% manganese and used in bessemer and open-hearth steel production. See Pig Iron.
A method of interpreting the fluidity of an alloy by pouring molten metal into a mold with a long narrow channel. The length of such casting, under standardized conditions, is taken as the fluidity index of that alloy.
A core of tile placed in a mold to prevent erosion of the mold at places where metal impinges with more than normal force. Splash cores are commonly used at the bottom of large rammed pouring basins, at the bottom of long downsprues, or at the ingates of large molds.
A pattern that is parted for convenience in molding.
A casting in which the metal is porous and dendritic.
A trough through which the metal flows from the furnace to the ladle.
A vertical passageway that takes the molten metal from the pouring basin to the runner. See Runners.
Sprue (Downsprue Downgate)
(1) The channel, usually vertical, which the molten metal enters: so-called because it conducts metal down into the mold. (2) The vertical channel connecting the pouring basin with the runner system and terminates in the sprue well at the bottom. See Runners.
Sprue Base (or well)
Rectangular or cylindrical block that receives metal from the Sprue, reduces the velocity of the falling stream of metal and provides the transition from the vertical to the horizontal and send the metal into the runner system. See Runners.
A metal tool used in cutting the pouring aperture, the sprue hole.
The opening through which the metal is poured into the cope to run into the casting cavity. See Cope.
A tapered metal or wood pin used to form the sprue opening in a mold. Also a metal or other stopper used in pouring basin to prevent molten metal from flowing into the sprue until a certain level has been reached. It prevents entry of dirt and dross. See Dross.
Removing gates and risers from castings after the metal has solidified.
A board used on the cope half of the mold to permit squeezing of the mold.
In certain type of molding machines, a stationary or movable plate against which a filled mold is compressed, in order to complete the compacting of the sand.
The pressure applied by a molding machine to press the flask and contained sand against the fixed squeeze head or board on a molding machine.
A power-operated, usually pneumatic, device used to pack sand into a flask. See Flask.
Molding method in which the half-mold forms the cope and drag. They are placed one on top of the other and poured through a common sprue. Cavities on the bottom side of one half-mold rest on the flat side of the half-mold beneath. When the cavities are in both sides of the half-molds, the method is called multiple molding. See Multiple Mold.
A wide range of steels containing chromium or chromium and nickel, exhibiting high resistance to corrosion.
A statistical quantity used to describe the variation of a measurable attribute about some average value.
A pattern of high-grade material and workmanship in daily use or at frequent intervals. A pattern used as a master to make or check production patterns.
A sample of know composition used to calibrate an instrument or method of analysis.
Refractory units stocked by manufacturers or made from stock molds.
Attaching staves to polygonshaped heads in the building of cylindrical bodies; also, standard method used in making semicircular core boxes.
An alloy of iron and carbon, containing no more than 1.74% carbon. It must be malleable at some temperature while in the as-cast state. See As-Cast.
Common designation for the standard grades of steel approved by the Society of Automotive Engineers.
In patternmaking, the courses of material that when fastened together resemble steps. See Pattern.
Proprietary name of a group of complex alloys retaining their hardness strength and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures; contains W, Co, Cr and C.
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)
Equipment used for computerized building of three-dimensional models and patterns. Enables the data representation of a CAD solid model to be directly converted into a plastic model of a casting.
A lump on the surface of a casting caused by a portion of the mold face sticking to the pattern. Also, a forming tool used in molding.
Material added to a part to allow for surface preparation or precise dimensioning by machining.
Standard cores of common diameters which are kept “in stock” for general use. See Cores.
Plate on a mold machine on which stools are mounted.
To shorten or change a mold.
Stop Off Strip
Reinforcing members on frail patterns. Impressions later filled with sand.
A refractory shape at the end of a stopper rod, usually clay and graphite, seated in a ladle’s nozzle.
A device in a bottom-pour ladle for controlling the flow of metal through the nozzle into the casting. The stopper rod consists of a steel rod, protecting sleeves, and a graphite stopper head. It may also be a single piece manufactured from graphite.
Closing off a part of the mold that is not wanted to be cast.
A phrase used to describe the result when molten metal is poured into the mold at too fast a rate or under too great metallstatic pressure, causing the cope to rise slightly from the drag and resulting in an oversize casting. See Casting, Cope, Drag, Mold.
A perforated core placed at the bottom of a sprue or in other locations in the grating system to control the flow of the molten metal. To some extent, it prevents coarse particles of slag and dross from entering the mold cavity. See Core Strainer.
Strains produced by internal stresses, resulting from unequal contraction of the metal as the casting cools.
Steady flow of liquid without turbulence. Generally, not experienced in metal casting.
Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength of a molded sand mixture when baked at a temperature above 230°F (110°C) and then cooled to room temperature.
See Compressive Strength.
See Impact Strength.
Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength attained by a sand mixture after being subjected to a cycle or cycles of heating and cooling which approximate foundry practice.
See Shear Strength.
See Tensile Strength
See Yield Strength.
Factors such as sharp changes in contour or surface defects which concentrate stresses locally. See Defects.
A heat treatment to reduce residual stresses followed by sufficiently slow cooling to minimize development of new residual stresses. See Heat Treatment.
Those stresses setup up in a metal as a result of nonuniform plastic deformation or the unequal cooling of a casting.
Spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under combined conditions of corrosion and stress, either residual or applied.
Strike Off (noun)
Strike Off (verb)
On certain molding machines, a series of pins (usually four in number) which support the rammed flask-half at the parting surface so that the mounted pattern may be drawn by lowering.
A device for removing the pattern from a mold or a core from the core box.
A plate, formed to the contour of the pattern, which holds the sand in place while the pattern is drawn through the plate.
In oil-oxygen and nobake mixture, the moment when the core box may be satisfactorily drawn from the core, or pattern from the sand.
Structure (Cast Structure)
The size and disposition of the constituents of a metal as cast.
Expendable pattern of foamed plastic, especially polystyrene, use in manufacturing casting by the Full Mold process.
Blowholes at or near the surface of solidified metal, covered with a thin layer of metal. May also be called pinhole porosity.
Refrigeration of steel to promote transformation of retained austenite.
A nonmetallic chemical element, with a melting point of 444°C (831.2°F) occurring as an undesirable tramp (trace) element in most ferrous alloys.
A macrographic method of examining for the distribution of sulfide impurities, in which a sheet of wet acidified bromide paper is placed on the polished surface to be examined.
An alloy developed for very high temperature use where relatively high stresses are encountered and where oxidation resistance is needed. See Alloy.
Lowering the temperature of a molten metal below its liquidus during cooling. See Liquidus.
Superduty Fireclay Brick
Having pce above 33 with less than 1.0 percent linear shrink in the 1599°C (2910°F) reheat test, and less than 4.0 percent loss in panel spalling test preheated at 1649°C (3000°F).
Any increment of temperature above the melting point of a metal; sometimes construed to be any increment of temperature above normal casting temperatures introduced for the purpose of refining, alloying or improving fluidity.
Theoretically, the temperature above the liquidus. In practice, it usually means temperature above the usual pouring range. See Liquidus.
Metastable solution in which the dissolved material exceeds the amount the solvent can hold in normal equilibrium at the temperature and under the other conditions that prevail.
An instrument for sending, receiving, and measuring sound waves over 20,000 cycles per second.
An electromagnetic flaw detection ink for the rapid detection of subcutaneous and surface flaws in ferrous metals.
Condition or appearance of the surface of a casting.
Conferring a superficial hardness to a steel while maintaining a relatively soft core. See Hardening.
Surface Protection Air Liquide (SPAL)
The use of liquid argon, liquid nitrogen, or carbon dioxide snow to minimize the reaction of air and molten metal that normally occurs in an induction furnace. The liquid or snow is fed onto the surface of the molten metal where it vaporizes, displacing the air thus reducing slag and oxygen levels.
The roughness, waviness, lay or other characteristics of the surface of a part.
Depositing a filer metal on a metal surface by any method to obtain certain desired properties or dimensions.
Sweep or Skree (noun)
A casting defect consisting of an increase in metal section due to the displacement of sand by metal pressure. See Defect.
Swing Frame Grinder
A device for grinding large castings where the work remains stationary. This grinder, too large to be hand lifted, is usually suspended from a hoist.
Synthetic Molding Sand
Any sand compounded from selected individual materials which, when mixed together, produce a mixture of the proper physical and mechanical properties from which to make foundry molds. See Molding Sand, Natural Sand.
Synthetic mixture of silica sand and exact proportions of binders and additives instead of using natural sands. See Natural Sand.
Foundry sand used in making molds and which eventually becomes the bulk of the sand used in the mechanical system or mechanized unit. See Sand.